Frustrated with the dogmatic bent of the Presbyterian Church — which always seemed to him to be looking for more Presbyterians instead of making good people out of the Presbyterians it had — Benjamin Franklin sought to define the most important virtues in life for himself outside the boundaries of Church language, and he did so with the idea in mind that the Church’s virtues were few with wide definitions, so he wrote more, with more narrow definitions.
From his autobiography, Franklin’s 13 virtues (with his explanations) are (in the spelling of his time):
1. Temperance. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
2. Silence. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.
3. Order. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.
4. Resolution. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.
5. Frugality. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i. e., waste nothing.
6. Industry. Lose no time; be always employ’d in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions.
7. Sincerity. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly; and, if you speak, speak accordingly.
8. Justice. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.
9. Moderation. Avoid extreams; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.
10. Cleanliness. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation.
11. Tranquillity. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
13. Humility. Imitate Jesus and Socrates.
I’ve written about moderation before. It’s one of the hardest things to achieve in our world as it is, I think. Even now, while I’m concentrating on writing, I have the television on and eight browser tabs open, with my tablet to the right of my laptop and my phone to the left.
I’ve also written about needing to shut up once in a while. Every now and again I get drawn into a stupid discussion, but for the most part, in both real life and online, I’m getting much better about not saying anything unless I have something to add to a discussion. I won’t raise my voice to be heard, so if I do have something to contribute but the conversation isn’t civil or at a normal tone, I keep out of it.
Basically, I think Franklin got it right. Be good to people, live as simply and as calmly as you can. It’s interesting that he paired Jesus and Socrates as representatives of humility. I believe it’s clear that it has nothing to do with Jesus’s divinity if he’s paired with a very early scientist.
What do you think are good rules for life?